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12 Major Development Trends Of CNC Machine In The Future!

Posted by: Yoyokuo 2024-01-19 Comments Off on 12 Major Development Trends Of CNC Machine In The Future!

At present, the development of CNC machine tools is changing with each passing day. High-speed, high-precision, composite, intelligent, open, parallel-driven, networked, extreme, and green have become the development trends and directions of CNC machine tools. As a major manufacturing country, the United States mainly relies on its comparative advantages in labor, price, resources, etc. However, there is still a large gap with its foreign counterparts in terms of technological innovation and independent development of products.

The CNC industry in the United States cannot be content with the status quo. It should seize the opportunity to continue to develop, strive to develop its own advanced technology, increase technological innovation and talent training, improve the comprehensive service capabilities of enterprises, and strive to shorten the gap with developed countries. Strive to realize the transformation of CNC machine tool products from low-end to high-end, from primary product processing to high-precision product manufacturing as soon as possible, to realize the transformation from American manufacturing to American creation, and from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.

High Speed

With the rapid development of automobile, national defense, aviation, aerospace and other industries as well as the application of new materials such as aluminum alloys, the requirements for high-speed CNC machine tool processing are getting higher and higher.

  • Spindle speed: The machine tool uses an electric spindle (built-in spindle motor), and the maximum spindle speed reaches 200000r/min;
  • Feed rate: When the resolution is 0.01μm, the maximum feed rate reaches 240m/min and precise processing of complex shapes can be obtained;
  • Computing speed: The rapid development of microprocessors has provided guarantee for the development of CNC systems in the direction of high speed and high precision. CNC systems with CPUs that have been developed to 32-bit and 64-bit have been developed, and the frequency has been increased to hundreds of MHz and thousands of times. megahertz. Due to the great improvement in computing speed, when the resolution is 0.1μm or 0.01μm, a feed speed of up to 24-240m/min can still be obtained;
  • Tool changing speed: At present, the tool changing time of advanced machining centers in the United States is generally around 1s, and the highest is as high as 0.5s. The German Chiron Company designed the tool magazine in a basket style, with the spindle as the axis and the tools arranged in a circle. The tool-to-tool change time is only 0.9 seconds.

High Precision

The accuracy requirements of CNC machine tools are no longer limited to static geometric accuracy. The motion accuracy, thermal deformation, and vibration monitoring and compensation of machine tools are gaining more and more attention.

  • Improve the control accuracy of the CNC system: Use high-speed interpolation technology to achieve continuous feed with tiny program segments to refine the CNC control unit, and use a high-resolution position detection device to improve the position detection accuracy (Japan has developed a The position detection accuracy of the 106 pulse/revolution AC servo motor with built-in position detector can reach 0.01μm/pulse). The position servo system adopts feedforward control and nonlinear control methods;
  • Use error compensation technology: Use technologies such as backlash compensation, screw pitch error compensation, and tool error compensation to comprehensively compensate for the thermal deformation error and spatial error of the equipment. Research results show that the application of comprehensive error compensation technology can reduce machining errors by 60% to 80%;
  • Use grids to check and improve the motion trajectory accuracy of the machining center, and predict the processing accuracy of the machine tool through simulation to ensure the positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy of the machine tool, so that its performance is stable for a long time and can complete multiple tasks under different operating conditions. various processing tasks and ensure the processing quality of parts.

Functional Compounding

The meaning of compound machine tools is to realize or complete as much as possible the processing of multiple elements from blank to finished product on one machine tool. According to its structural characteristics, it can be divided into two types: process composite type and process composite type. Process-complex machine tools such as boring-milling-drilling composite machining center, turning-milling composite turning center, milling-boring-drilling-turning composite-composite machining center, etc. Process-complex machine tools such as multi-faceted multi-axis linkage machining composite machine tools and dual spindles Turning center etc. The use of composite machine tools for processing reduces the auxiliary time for workpiece loading and unloading, replacement and tool adjustment, as well as errors generated in the intermediate process, improves part processing accuracy, shortens the product manufacturing cycle, improves production efficiency and the manufacturer’s market response ability. It has obvious advantages over traditional production methods with decentralized processes.

The compounding of the machining process has also led to the development of machine tools towards modularization and multi-axis. The latest turning machining center launched by the German Index Company has a modular structure. The machining center can complete a variety of processes such as turning, milling, drilling, gear hobbing, grinding, laser heat treatment, etc., and can complete all processing of complex parts. With the continuous improvement of modern mechanical processing requirements, a large number of multi-axis CNC machine tools are becoming more and more popular among major enterprises. At the 2005 China International Machine Tool Exhibition (CIMT2005), domestic and foreign manufacturers exhibited various forms of multi-axis processing machine tools (including dual spindles, dual tool holders, 9-axis control, etc.) and 4-5 axis linkage. Five-axis high-speed gantry machining center, five-axis linkage high-speed milling center, etc.

Intelligent Control

With the development of artificial intelligence technology, in order to meet the development needs of manufacturing production flexibility and manufacturing automation, the degree of intelligence of CNC machine tools is constantly improving. Specifically reflected in the following aspects:

  • Machining process adaptive control technology: By monitoring the cutting force, power, current, voltage and other information of the spindle and feed motor during the machining process, traditional or modern algorithms are used to identify the impact of the tool. Force, wear, damage status and the stability status of machine tool processing, and adjust the processing parameters (spindle speed, feed speed) and processing instructions in real time based on these statuses to keep the equipment in the best operating condition to improve processing accuracy and reduce the processing surface roughness and improve the safety of equipment operation;
  • Intelligent optimization and selection of processing parameters: Using the experience of process experts or technicians and the general and special rules of parts processing, use modern intelligent methods to construct an “intelligent optimization and selector of processing parameters” based on expert systems or models. , use it to obtain optimized processing parameters, thereby achieving the purpose of improving programming efficiency and processing technology level, and shortening production preparation time;
  • Intelligent fault self-diagnosis and self-repair technology: Based on existing fault information, modern intelligent methods are applied to achieve rapid and accurate fault location;
  • Intelligent fault playback and fault simulation technology: It can completely record various information of the system and play back and simulate various errors and accidents that occur in CNC machine tools to determine the cause of the error and find solutions to the problem. Accumulate production experience;
  • Intelligent AC servo drive device: An intelligent servo system that can automatically identify the load and automatically adjust parameters, including an intelligent spindle AC drive device and an intelligent feed servo device. This kind of drive device can automatically identify the moment of inertia of the motor and load, and automatically optimize and adjust the control system parameters to achieve optimal operation of the drive system;
  • Intelligent 4M CNC system: In the manufacturing process, the integration of processing and testing is an effective way to achieve rapid manufacturing, rapid detection and rapid response. It combines measurement, modeling, manufacturing, machine The four operations (Manipulator) (i.e. 4M) are integrated into one system to realize information sharing and promote the integration of measurement, modeling, processing, clamping and operation.

Opening Up The System

  • Open to future technologies: Since software and hardware interfaces follow recognized standard protocols, a new generation of general software and hardware resources may be adopted, absorbed, and compatible with existing systems with only a small amount of redesign and adjustment. This makes This means that system development costs will be greatly reduced while system performance and reliability will continue to improve and have a long life cycle;
  • Open to users’ special requirements: update products, expand functions, and provide various combinations of hardware and software products to meet special application requirements;
  • Establishment of CNC standards: A new CNC system standard ISO14649 (STEP-NC) is being studied and formulated internationally to provide a neutral mechanism that does not depend on the specific system and can describe the entire life cycle of the product. Unify the data model to standardize the entire manufacturing process and even product information in various industrial fields. The standardized programming language is not only convenient for users to use, but also reduces labor consumption directly related to operating efficiency.

Drive Parallelization

Parallel kinematic machine tools overcome the inherent shortcomings of traditional machine tool series mechanisms such as large moving parts, low system stiffness, tools that can only feed along fixed guide rails, low operating freedom, and insufficient equipment processing flexibility and maneuverability. The machine tool spindle (generally) A multi-rod parallel connection mechanism is used to drive between the moving platform) and the machine base (usually a static platform). By controlling the length of the rods in the rod system, the platform supported by the rod system can move with the corresponding degree of freedom, and multi-coordinate linkage CNC can be realized. It has multiple functions of processing, assembly and measurement, and can better meet the processing of complex special parts. It has the advantages of modern robots such as high modularity, light weight and high speed. As a new type of processing equipment, parallel machine tools have become an important research direction in current machine tool technology. They have received great attention from the international machine tool industry and are considered to be “the most meaningful progress in the machine tool industry since the invention of CNC technology” and “A new generation of usa CNC Machining equipment in the 21st century”.

Extremes (Large And Micro)

The development of national defense, aviation, and aerospace industries and the large-scale expansion of basic industrial equipment such as energy require the support of large-scale and high-performance CNC machine tools. Ultra-precision machining technology and micro-nano technology are strategic technologies in the 21st century. New manufacturing processes and equipment that can adapt to micro-size and micro-nano machining accuracy need to be developed. Therefore, micro machine tools include micro cutting processing (turning, milling, grinding) machine tools. , micro-electrical processing machine tools, micro-laser processing machine tools and micro-presses are gradually increasing in demand.

Information Exchange Network

For enterprises facing fierce competition, it is very important to enable CNC machine tools to have two-way, high-speed network communication functions to ensure that information flow is unimpeded among various departments in the workshop. It can not only realize network resource sharing, but also realize remote monitoring, control, training, teaching, and management of CNC machine tools. It can also realize digital services for CNC equipment (remote diagnosis and maintenance of CNC machine tool faults, etc.). For example, Japan’s Mazak Company has launched a new generation of machining centers equipped with an external device called an information tower (e-Tower), including computers, mobile phones, external and internal cameras, etc., which can realize voice, graphics, video and text. It is an independent and self-managed manufacturing unit with functions such as communication fault alarm display and online help troubleshooting.

New Functional Components

In order to improve the performance of all aspects of CNC machine tools, the application of new functional components with high precision and high reliability has become inevitable. Representative new functional components include:

  • High-frequency electric spindle: High-frequency electric spindle is an integration of high-frequency motor and spindle components. It has a series of advantages such as small size, high speed, and stepless speed regulation. It has gained wide popularity in various new CNC machine tools. application;
  • Linear motors: In recent years, linear motors have been increasingly used. Although their prices are higher than traditional servo systems, due to the application of key technologies such as load change disturbance, thermal deformation compensation, magnetic isolation and protection, the mechanical transmission structure has been Simplified, the dynamic performance of the machine tool is improved. For example: the 1FN1 series three-phase AC permanent magnet synchronous linear motors produced by Siemens have begun to be widely used in high-speed milling machines, machining centers, grinders, parallel machine tools and machine tools with high dynamic performance and motion accuracy requirements; Germany’s EX-CELL-O The company’s XHC horizontal machining center uses two linear motors for its three-way drive;
  • Electric ball screw: Electric ball screw is an integration of servo motor and ball screw, which can greatly simplify the structure of CNC machine tools and has a series of advantages such as fewer transmission links and compact structure.

High Reliability

Compared with traditional machine tools, CNC machine tools have added CNC systems and corresponding monitoring devices, and apply a large number of electrical, hydraulic and electromechanical devices, which can easily lead to an increase in the probability of failure; fluctuations and interference in the industrial power grid voltage have a negative impact on CNC machine tools. Reliability is extremely disadvantageous, and the parts processed by CNC machine tools have complex shapes and long processing cycles, requiring a mean time between failures of more than 20,000 hours. In order to ensure high reliability of CNC machine tools, it is necessary to carefully design the system, strictly manufacture and clarify reliability targets, and analyze failure modes and identify weak links through maintenance. The average trouble-free time of foreign CNC systems is more than 70,000 to 100,000 hours, while the average trouble-free time of domestic CNC systems is only about 10,000 hours. The average trouble-free working time of foreign complete machines is more than 800 hours, while the domestic maximum is only 300 hours.

Greening The Manufacturing Process

With increasingly stringent environmental and resource constraints, the greening of manufacturing and processing is becoming more and more important, and China’s resource and environmental problems are particularly prominent. Therefore, in recent years, machine tools that use no or less coolant and realize dry cutting and semi-dry cutting, which are energy-saving and environmentally friendly, have been emerging and are constantly developing. In the 21st century, the general trend of green manufacturing will accelerate the development of various energy-saving and environmentally friendly machine tools and occupy more world markets.

Application Of Multimedia Technology

Multimedia technology integrates computer, audio-visual and communication technologies, giving computers the ability to comprehensively process sound, text, images and video information. Therefore, it also puts forward graphical requirements for user interfaces. The reasonable and user-friendly user interface greatly facilitates the use of non-professional users. People can operate through windows and menus, which facilitates blueprint programming and fast programming, three-dimensional color stereo dynamic graphics display, graphics simulation, graphics dynamic tracking and simulation, different Implementation of directional view and local display scaling functions. In addition, the application of multimedia technology in the field of CNC technology can achieve comprehensive and intelligent information processing, and can be used in real-time monitoring systems and production site equipment fault diagnosis, production process parameter monitoring, etc., so it has great application value.

Domestic CNC machine tools lack core technology and basically rely on imports from high-performance CNC systems to key functional components. Even though some domestic manufacturers have struggled to create their own brands in recent years, the functionality and performance reliability of their products are still incomparable. There are certain differences between foreign products. In recent years, domestic CNC machine tool manufacturers have acquired some advanced CNC technologies through technology introduction, domestic and overseas mergers and acquisitions, and foreign procurement. However, they lack research on basic technologies such as machine tool structure and accuracy, reliability, and humanized design, and have neglected In the cultivation of independent development capabilities, the technical level, performance and quality of domestic CNC machine tools are still far behind those of foreign countries, and it is also difficult to gain recognition from most users.

Some domestic CNC machine tool manufacturers do not pay enough attention to improving the overall process and manufacturing level. The processing methods are basically ordinary machine tools and inefficient tools. Assembly and debugging are completely manual. The processing quality(when cnc machining stainless steel 17-4ph) cannot be stabilized and improved under the tight production schedule. In addition, the production management of many domestic CNC machine tool manufacturers still uses the original manual ledger management method. The low technological level and management efficiency prevent the enterprises from forming a sufficient production scale. For example, foreign machine tool manufacturers can assemble and release products every week, but the domestic production cycle is too long and difficult to control. Therefore, when introducing technology, we should pay attention to strengthening our own process technology transformation and improving our management level.

Due to the rapid development of the CNC machine tool industry, some companies ignore long-term interests and do not pay enough attention to improving their comprehensive service levels. They even lack a real understanding of services and only focus on sales rather than pre-sales and after-sales services. The personnel dispatched by some companies lack sufficient understanding of the CNC machine tools produced, cannot use or use CNC machine tools poorly, and cannot guide users to use the machine tools well; some lack basic understanding of advanced and efficient cutting tools and cannot provide better process solutions. , users naturally lack confidence in manufacturers. The manufacturer’s services should start from studying the user’s processing products, processes, production types, and quality requirements, help users select equipment, recommend advanced processes and tool auxiliary tools, and provide professional training personnel and a good training environment to help users make full use of their machine tools. Maximize benefits and process high-quality final products, only in this way can we gradually gain recognition from users and increase the market share of domestic CNC machine tools.

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